Coronavirus
新型冠狀病毒

 

Coronavirus Q&A
新型冠狀病毒問與答

Share this story:
print

Useful Information

Dr. Sunny Pak from the San Francisco Chinatown Public Health Center answers additional CoVID-19 vaccine questions in Cantonese

    VIDEO #1
    Question: Which vaccine is the best? I know they say just take whatever vaccine is available, and the % of effectiveness are slightly different, but is there a best choice between Pfizer, Moderna, and Johnson & Johnson? I heard that the Moderna vaccine is better for APIs but that the Pfizer is better for seniors – what is the difference and which one should I pick?

    VIDEO #2
    Question: Will the vaccine give me COVID-19? If others in my family haven’t gotten the vaccine, won’t I get them sick? Can I still pass on COVID-19 to other people after getting vaccinated?

    VIDEO #3
    Question: What if I have a preexisting condition like heart disease, kidney disease, or diabetes, how will the vaccine affect me? Will it make things worse? Can I take the vaccine if I am on medication? Will the vaccine interfere if I have ongoing diseases/allergies? (high-blood pressure, anemic, diabetic etc.)

    VIDEO #4
    Question: Where can I get a vaccine in San Francisco? Why is it so challenging to get a vaccine? Do I need medical insurance? Will the vaccination ask me if I have a labor certificate?

Frequently asked Vaccine Q&A

    Who can get vaccinated now? Click on Vaccine Eligibility Expansion to Persons Under 65 with Qualifying Conditions (San Francisco)
    (3/15/2021) As 27% of San Franciscan adults have received at least one dose of vaccines, the City has expanded its vaccine eligibility requirements to include individuals who:
    • Are age 16 to 64 at high risk for severe COVID-19 due to one or more health conditions
    • Are age 16 to 64 with disabilities
    • Live or work in high-risk congregate care facilities, including correctional facilities, homeless shelters, and other congregate residential care/treatment facilities
    • Are experiencing homelessness


    Eligible people can schedule a vaccination appointment through the state’s MyTurn system, county vaccine websites, and some health care providers.

    Do I need to prove if I have qualifying conditions in order to get the vaccine?
    Verification policy varies across counties and providers at this time.
    But for UCSF and other publicly-run sites in San Francisco, they follow State and City guidance that relies on attestation and will not require verification.
    For those UCSF patients who need proof of eligibility for health conditions, we have a template letter in MyChart (the electronic medical record) that clinicians can type in.

    I am worried about getting the vaccine because I heard the side effects are very severe
    From the CDC website:
    You may have some side effects, which are normal signs that your body is building protection. Common side effects are pain, redness, and swelling in the arm where you received the shot, as well as tiredness, headache, muscle pain, chills, fever, and nausea throughout the rest of the body. These side effects could affect your ability to do daily activities, but they should go away in a few days. Learn more about what to expect after getting a COVID-19 vaccine. Some people have no side effects.

    What if I have a preexisting condition like heart disease, kidney disease, or diabetes, how will the vaccine affect me? Will it make things worse?
    From the CDC website:
    People with underlying medical conditions can receive a COVID-19 vaccine as long as they have not had an immediate or severe allergic reaction to a COVID-19 vaccine or to any of the ingredients in the vaccine. Learn more about vaccination considerations for people with underlying medical conditions. Vaccination is an important consideration for adults of any age with certain underlying medical conditions because they are at increased risk for severe illness from COVID-19.

    Specifically, how do the vaccines differ from each other?
    Vaccine manufacturers report information from clinical trials, including demographics and underlying medical conditions of people who participated in COVID-19 vaccine trials. You can find additional information on COVID-19 vaccine clinical trials at clinicaltrials.gov, a database of privately and publicly funded clinical studies conducted around the world.

    Information on Pfizer/BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine:
    https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/vaccines/different-vaccines/Pfizer-BioNTech.html


    Information on Moderna COVID-19 vaccine
    https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/vaccines/different-vaccines/Moderna.html

    Information on Johnson & Johnson (Janssen) COVID-19 vaccine
    https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/vaccines/different-vaccines/janssen.html

    Will the mutations of the virus mean Pifzer, Moderna won’t be as effective?
    From STAT:
    Both the Moderna and Pfizer-BioNTech vaccines finished clinical trials before the emergence of B.1.351 and other variants of concern, so there are no clinical data for how they defend against the newer iterations of the virus. But in their trials, both were shown to be greater than 90% efficacious at preventing symptomatic Covid-19, so some experts have argued that even if they lose some of their oomph against particular variants, they have enough cushion to remain highly protective.

    Novavax and J&J trials reported drops in efficacy in against the variant. Moderna, last month reported that its vaccine was also less potent against B.1.351 in lab experiments, but said it believed the levels of antibodies generated should still be protective.

    From CDC:
    Preliminary results from the United Kingdom demonstrate that vaccination with two doses of Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine was highly effective (85–86%) against SARS-CoV-2 infection and symptomatic COVID-19 during a period when B.1.1.7 was the predominant circulating strain. Similarly, high Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine effectiveness (92%) against infection was observed in Israel in the context of multiple circulating strains, with the proportion of cases due to the B.1.1.7 variant increasing to 80% towards the end of the evaluation period. Preliminary data suggest that the Janssen COVID-19 vaccine may have reduced overall efficacy against the B.1.351 variant. In the United States, efficacy was 74% and in Brazil (where ~69% of infections were due to P.2) efficacy was 66%, but in South Africa (~where 95% of infections were due to B.1.351) efficacy was 52%. However, Janssen vaccine efficacy against severe or critical disease was high and similar across sites (73–82%) .

    The Pfizer and Moderna vaccines are made with a piece of genetic code called messenger RNA that tells the body how to make some harmless copies of the spike protein that train immune cells. To update the vaccine, they can simply swap out the original genetic code with mRNA for the mutated spike protein.

    Can a person who has tested positive get vaccinated?
    The CDC also addresses this question in a post titled, “I’ve already had COVID, should I still get vaccinated?”

    The answer, the CDC writes: “Yes, due to the severe health risks associated with COVID-19 and the fact that reinfection with COVID-19 is possible, you should be vaccinated regardless of whether you already had a COVID-19 infection.”
    However, the CDC adds the caveat that if someone was treated for COVID-19 symptoms with monoclonal antibodies or convalescent plasma, they should wait 90 days before getting a COVID-19 vaccine. If you’re unsure what treatment you received, the CDC urges you to consult your doctor. (Having those synthetic antibodies or having convalescent plasma can actually reduce the efficacy of the vaccine because it basically stops the vaccine from working before it gets started.)

    Is the vaccine only effective for a few months?
    We don’t know how long protection lasts for those who were vaccinated.
    Experts are working to learn more about both natural immunity and vaccine-induced immunity. CDC will keep the public informed as new evidence becomes available. COVID-19 has caused very serious illness and death for a lot of people. If you get COVID-19, you also risk giving it to loved ones who may get very sick. Getting a COVID-19 vaccine is a safer choice.

Cancer related Vaccine Q&A

    My WBC has dropped recently to 3000 only, not sure which of my previous cancers is recurring. With my poor health condition & compromised immunity, can I still take the Covid vaccine?
    Dr. Ko: Yes, it is still safe for cancer patients to receive the vaccine, including those with compromised immune systems (i.e. from receiving chemotherapy).

    I am undergoing chemo, can I take the vaccine now or wait till the treatment is finished?
    Dr. Ko: Yes, it is still safe for cancer patients to receive the vaccine, including those with compromised immune systems (i.e. from receiving chemotherapy). In general, we recommend trying to separate the timing of your vaccine from the day you’re receiving chemotherapy, by at least a few days.

    For people in stage 4 cancer, should they take the vaccine?
    Dr. Ko: Yes, it is still safe for cancer patients to receive the vaccine, including those with compromised immune systems (i.e. from receiving chemotherapy).

    I had a liver transplant 3 years ago, and am taking immunosuppressants. Should I take the vaccine? Does it matter which type?
    Dr. Ko: Yes, post-liver transplant patients are recommended to take the vaccine. Moderna and Pfizer would be good choices as they are mRNA vaccines (i.e. do not contain attenuated virus).




軼事分享:
print

更多信息

舊金山唐人街公共衛生中心的白幹榮醫學博士回答了CoVID-19疫苗的問題 (廣東話)


    視頻 #1
    問題: 目前市面有輝瑞、莫德納和強生這三種疫苗,我們聽聞莫德納疫苗對亞太裔特別有效,而輝瑞對長者又較好,到底分別在那裡?哪種疫苗更好?我們應該如何選擇呢?


    視頻 #2
    問題: 接種疫苗會否令我們感染新型冠狀病毒? 如果我的家庭成員未有接種疫苗,我會否令他們生病? 我接種疫苗後,是否仍有機會將新型冠狀病毒傳播給其他人?


    視頻 #3
    問題: 如果我有先已存在的健康狀況,或者是長期病患,例如心臟病、腎病或糖尿病,又或者有高血壓,貧血等等,我是否可以接種疫苗?疫苗對我是否會有什麼負面影響?如果我正服藥,是否會有過敏現象?


    視頻#4
    問題: 我可以在三藩市那裏接種疫苗?為什麼預約接種疫苗如此困難?我是否需有醫療健保?接種疫苗是否會詢問我有沒有勞工證呢?

經常疫苗問題

    誰現在可以接種疫苗?
    點擊(舊金山)接種疫苗資格擴大至65歲以下並符合指定條件

    (3/15/2021) 由於27%的舊金山成人已經接種了至少一劑疫苗,本市也已將接種疫苗資格的要求擴大至包括以下人員:

    •年齡在16至64歲之間,並由於一種或多種健康狀況而有感染嚴重新冠肺炎(COVID-19)的高風險
    •年齡在16歲至64歲之間,並有殘疾
    •在高風險的集體護理設施中生活或工作,包括懲教所,無家可歸者之收容所與其他集體住宿護理/治療設施
    •無家可歸人士

    符合條件人士可以通過本州的MyTurn系統網站、縣級疫苗網站、或私人的醫務所去安排預約接種疫苗。

    我是否要具備有合資格條件的證明,才能獲得接種疫苗?
    目前,各縣和提供接種疫苗機構的驗證政策並不一致。
    但是,加州大學舊金山分校與舊金山其他公共場所會遵循州和市政府的指引,只依靠自我申報符合條件,而並不需要驗證。
    加州大學舊金山分校病人如果需要有健康狀況的證明,我們在MyChart 網站(電子病歷)中有一信件範本,可供臨床醫生填寫做證明。

    我不放心去接種疫苗,因為聽聞副作用非常嚴重
    摘自 “疾病預防控制中心” (CDC) 網頁:
    你可能會有一些副作用,這是身體正在建立保護的正常跡象。常見的副作用是注射手臂會出現疼痛、發紅和腫脹,以及整個身體其餘部分出現疲勞、頭痛、肌肉疼痛、發冷、發燒和噁心。這些副作用可能會影響你日常活動的能力,但數天內它們就會消失。認識更多有關注射新冠肺炎(COVID-19)疫苗後預計會出現的情況。有些人沒有副作用。

    如果已患有心臟病、腎病或糖尿病等,注射疫苗會產生影響嗎?會否令情況變得更糟?
    摘自 “疾病預防控制中心” (CDC) 網頁:
    患有慢性病的人士只要對新冠肺炎疫苗或疫苗中的任何成分沒有即時或嚴重的過敏反應,是可以接種疫苗。要瞭解更多有關慢性病患者接種疫苗需要注意的事項。 對於患上某些慢性病的成年人,不論年齡,考慮接種疫苗都很重要,因為新冠肺炎會令他們生重病的風險增加。




    具體來說,不同疫苗之間有何分別?
    疫苗製造商會匯報來自臨床試驗的資訊,包括參與新冠肺炎疫苗試驗人士的統計資料和潛在的慢性病。 你可以在clinicaltrials.gov網站上找到更多有關疫苗臨床試驗之資訊,這是在全球私人資助和公共基金的臨床研究之數據庫。

    關于輝瑞(Pfizer) /復必泰(BioNTech)新冠肺炎疫苗之資訊:
    https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/vaccines/different-vaccines/Pfizer-BioNTech.html

    有關莫德納(Moderna) 新冠肺炎疫苗之資訊
    https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/vaccines/different-vaccines/Moderna.html

    有關強生(Janssen)新冠肺炎疫苗之資訊
    https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/vaccines/different-vaccines/janssen.html

    輝瑞和莫德納對付這些變異的病毒的疫苗會失效嗎?
    摘自“STAT” 網頁:
    在B.1.351和其他令人關注的變種病毒出現之前,莫德納和輝瑞/復必泰之疫苗均已完成了臨床試驗,因此,現在尚未有其防禦新變種病毒的臨床數據。不過,在試驗中,兩者均顯示可以防止病人感染有徵狀的新冠肺炎有超過90%的功效,所以,一些專家認為,即使其對某些變種病毒失去了些功力,它們仍有足夠的緩衝可維持高度的預防。

    Novavax和強生試驗報告指出疫苗針對這些變種病毒的功效會下降。莫德納上個月報導說,在實驗室試驗中,其疫苗對B.1.351的效力也較弱,但他們相信所產生的抗體水平仍應具有保護作用。


    摘自 “疾病預防控制中心”( CDC ) 網頁:
    英國的初步結果顯示輝瑞/復必泰在B.1.1.7是主導菌株循環的期間,接種兩劑輝瑞/復必泰的新冠肺炎疫苗後,可預防感染新冠病毒和對有徵狀的新冠肺炎高度有效(85-86%)。在以色列,同樣在多種循環之毒株的情況下,也觀察到輝瑞/復必泰之疫苗對預防感染的效力可高達92%,至評估結束時,由於B.1.1.7的變異病毒所引起的病例比例增加至80%,初步數據顯示,強生的新冠肺炎疫苗針對B.1.351變體8的總體功效可能降低。在美國,功效為74%,在巴西則為66%(~69%的感染歸因於P.2),但南非的功效為52%(~95%的感染歸因於B.1.351)。不過,強生的疫苗針對嚴重疾病或危疾的功效頗高,各地的數據也相近(73-82%)。



    輝瑞/復必泰和莫德納疫苗是用一種稱為 “信使核糖核酸” (messenger RNA)的遺傳密碼製成,該密碼告訴人體如何製作一些無害的刺突蛋白,讓其 訓練產生免疫細胞。如果需要更新疫苗,他們可以簡單地將含“信使核糖核酸” (mRNA)的遺傳密碼更換為已變異的刺突蛋白即可。


    檢測結果為陽性的人可以接種疫苗嗎?
    疾病預防控制中心(CDC)也在題為“我已經感染有冠狀病毒,仍然應該接種疫苗嗎?”的帖子中解答了這個問題。

    疾病預防控制中心提供的答案是:“要的,由於新冠肺炎可帶來的嚴重健康風險以及可能再次感染新冠肺炎,因此,無論是否曾經感染過新冠肺炎,都應當接種疫苗。”
    不過,疾病預防控制中心補充,如果已使用過單克隆抗體或康復期血漿去治療新冠肺炎徵狀,他們則應該先等90天才去接種疫苗。 如果不確定已接受哪種治療,疾病預防控制中心(CDC)主張你諮詢醫生。 (事實上,體內如果含有這些合成抗體或康復性血漿是會降低疫苗的功效的,因為它會在疫苗開始產生效用之前停止其工作。)

    疫苗是否僅有效幾個月?
    我們仍未清楚接種疫苗的人士能得到多長時間的保護。
    專家們正在努力研究有關自然免疫和疫苗誘導的免疫。當有了新的證據,疾病預防控制中心會向公眾通報情況。
    新冠肺炎已經令許多人有非常嚴重的疾病,甚至死亡。任何人如果感染到新冠肺炎,也有風險將其傳染給至愛親人,令他們可能得重病。所以,接種新冠肺炎疫苗是比較安全的選擇。

癌症相关新型冠狀病毒問與答

    我的白血球最近下降到僅有3000,現未確定我以前哪種癌症正在復發。 由於我不良之健康狀況,且免疫力受損,我仍適宜接種新冠肺炎(Covid)疫苗嗎?
    Ko醫生:可以。對於癌症患者,包括免疫系統已受損的(即曾經接受化學療法的患者),接種疫苗仍然是安全的。.

    我正在接受化學治療。我現在可以接種疫苗嗎?還是要等到療程完成之後?
    Ko醫生:對於癌症患者,包括免疫系統已受損的(即曾經接受化學療法的患者),接種疫苗仍然是安全的。一般而言,我們建議將接種疫苗的時間與接受化療的時間分隔至少幾天。

    處於第四期癌症者應該接種疫苗嗎?
    Ko醫生:可以。對於癌症患者,包括免疫系統已受損的(即曾經接受化學療法的患者),接種疫苗仍然是安全的。

    我三年前接受了肝移植手術,現正在服用免疫抑製劑。 我應該接種疫苗嗎? 接種哪種類型會有關係嗎?
    Ko醫生:可以。我們建議曾接受肝移植者接種疫苗。 Moderna與Pfizer都是信使核糖核酸(mRNA)疫苗,不含滅活病毒,會是適當的選擇。